Advanced Pharmacology

The social dimension

Patient-centered prescribing

Pharmacological considerations include rich social contexts that ground the Digital Clinical Experience in the requirements and concerns of clinicians and patients. The suite of Digital Standardized Patients

  • - represents a diverse range of races, ages, genders, orientations, and financial circumstances
  • - includes Shadow Health's first transgender patient
  • - addresses the issue of opioid-seeking patients
  • - encourages empathic and respectful communication with patients from all backgrounds

Advanced Pharmacology guides students through patient-centered prescribing, preparing them to be ethical and effective prescribers of medication.

Advanced Pharmacology Digital Standardized Patients
Digital Standardized Patient Sophia Haddad

Sophia Haddad is a 5-year-old elementary student who was sent home from school on account of a sore throat and a fever. There is an outbreak of Group A Strep at her school. A rapid strep test is performed, and comes back positive. In the Digital Clinical Experience, the student communicates with and obtains subjective data from both the pediatric patient and her father, Omar Haddad. While selecting and prescribing medication, the student must calculate appropriate dosage for the antibiotic based on patient weight, concentration, and frequency of administration. The student provides education to both the patient and her father on topics such as medication administration and steps to prevent reinfection.

Digital Standardized Patient Makayla Henderson

Makayla Henderson is a 21-year-old college student who comes into her primary care clinic with a UTI. The student takes Makayla's relevant health history in the Digital Clinical Experience and prescribes her appropriate medication. The student has the opportunity to address issues of sexual health to help Makayla prevent future UTI complications. Makayla identifies as bisexual and is sexually active; the student will determine the relevance -- or irrelevance -- of Makayla's orientation while taking her health history and educating her on sexual health practices. While selecting and prescribing medication for Makayla, the student must consider antibiotic hypersensitivity as well as area antibiotic resistance.

Digital Standardized Patient Debbie O'Connor

Debbie O'Connor is a 55-year-old retired office manager suffering from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. In the Digital Clinical Experience, the student takes Debbie's health history. The student must determine the best way to help improve Debbie's comfort, manage her condition, and address Debbie's desire for smoking cessation using pharmacological options.

Digital Standardized Patient Anita Douglas

Anita Douglas is a 72-year-old retired veterinarian suffering from community-acquired pneumonia. In the Digital Clinical Experience, the student explores Anita's relevant health history. The student then must take Anita's age and comorbidities into consideration when selecting appropriate medication to treat her illness. The student must implement their knowledge of antibiotic care to treat Anita effectively.

Digital Standardized Patient Arun Patel

Arun Patel is a 38-year-old graduate student who has come in for a follow up appointment on his diabetes and hypertension readings. During the Digital Clinical Experience, the student takes Arun's relevant medical history and determines the best way to manage his comorbidities. The student must consider Arun's preferences and economic situation in the medication selection portion of the simulation.

Digital Standardized Patient Tanner Bailey

Tanner Bailey is a 30 year-old theater director who comes into his primary care clinic with severe back pain. The student takes Tanner's relevant medical history before deciding the appropriate pharmacological method to help Tanner manage his pain, and must determine whether or not Tanner is a good candidate for opioids. Tanner is Shadow Health's first transgender patient. While the student has the opportunity to ask Tanner questions about his gender identity, the student is responsible for recognizing and respecting the personal boundaries that Tanner may set in the course of the patient interview.

Advanced Pharmacology

Engage students with conversation-based learning

Digital Clinical Experiences provide a safe, standardized environment for students to develop their therapeutic communication and medication prescription skills through realistic interactions with Digital Standardized Patients. These life-like, simulated patients present with a variety of medical issues and come from a range of social and economic backgrounds. Students must carefully consider these factors during each phase of the simulation as they interview, educate, and prescribe medication to the patient.

Our natural language conversation engine allows students to talk to our suite of Advanced Pharmacology patients using open-ended questions. Students synthesize the subjective data they gather from the interview with objective data from the patient's electronic health record to determine the most appropriate pharmacological treatment.

Students record their findings and compare their work to comprehensive model documentation.

Advanced Pharmacology guides students through the process of medication selection, education, and prescription. After selecting the appropriate pharmacological treatment for the patient, the student then educates the patient on how to take their medication and what side effects to expect using an interactive patient education simulation. The Digital Standardized Patients respond to the student's instructions and sometimes may ask follow up questions of their own. Once the patient has been educated on their treatment, the student writes them a prescription using Shadow Health's virtual prescription pad.

Students engage in debriefing immediately following every assignment, and are given feedback on the discrete components of clinical reasoning measured by our Student Performance Index.

Three new activities

Treating the patient

Advanced Pharmacology introduces three new activities to our lineup of student-centered, interactive learning simulations: medication selection, patient education, and prescription writing. In medication selection, students will consider the patient's diagnosis, economic situation, preferences, and comorbidities before choosing a medication that offers the best pharmacological therapy for the patient. After selecting the appropriate medication, students educate the patient on the medication they will be taking. Finally, students interpret and apply what they have learned throughout the clinical simulation by filling out a prescription for their patient using Shadow Health's virtual prescription pad.

Medication selection and prescription writing in the Digital Clinical Experience

* Medication names witheld for demo purposes

Measuring Clinical Reasoning in the DCE using the Student Performance Index
Student Performance Index

Measure Clinical Reasoning

Shadow Health has developed and validated the first conceptual framework to operationalize clinical reasoning within virtual patient simulations.

This innovative framework includes six discrete components of clinical reasoning: Subjective Data Collection, Objective Data Collection, Therapeutic Communication, Documentation, Information Processing, and Self-Reflection.

Shadow Health's Student Performance Index provides both you and your students with the immediate, detailed feedback necessary to accurately identify areas of strength and opportunities for remediation.


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